Boreal black spruce forests typically have relatively open canopies that allow a significant portion of incoming radiation to reach the ground vegetation. Forest floor GPP (Gross Primary Productivity) is thus a potentially important process that can represent a significant portion of C assimilation in such ecosystems and can be as high as 50% on certain days.

The oil industry and support services withdraw water from freshwater lakes and ponds to build ice roads and pads in the Arctic for increased access to remote sites. This technique is important to the oil industry in that it allows oil field development or maintenance while avoiding the environmental disturbance associated with construction of gravel roads and pads. 

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